english civil war vs french wars of religion

2021年1月17日

This provoked the Second War and its main military engagement, the Battle of Saint-Denis, where the crown's commander-in-chief and lieutenant general, the 74-year-old Anne de Montmorency, died. A true discourse of the discomfiture of the Duke of Aumalle, with his troupes of horsmen in Picardie… was printed in 1589 by Richard Field from the French original Vray discours sur la deffaicte des Duc d'Aumalle… It refers to the important battle of Senlis in May 1589: the allied forces of Henry III and Henry of Navarre defeated the Catholic League's troops led by the Duke of Aumale, a member of the Guise clan. Thirty Years' War. Wars of Religion, (1562–98) conflicts in France between Protestants and Roman Catholics. He urged the French not to join the Catholic League and reminded his audience that sovereignty comes from God, who alone "translates the sceptre", and not the people. In Germany the territorial formula of cuius regio, eius religio applied—that is, in each petty state the population had to conform to the religion of the ruler. In turn, Henry III was assassinated in August 1589. The English Civil War (1642–1651) was a series of civil wars and political machinations between Parliamentarians ("Roundheads") and Royalists ("Cavaliers"), mainly over the manner of England's governance and issues of religious freedom. After much posturing and negotiations, Henry III rescinded most of the concessions that had been made to the Protestants in the Edict of Beaulieu with the Treaty of Bergerac (September 1577), confirmed in the Edict of Poitiers passed six days later.[68]. The Committee of Sixteen took complete control of the government, while the Guise protected the surrounding supply lines. De Iusta Henrici Tertii abdicatione e Francorum regno was written by a radical French Catholic preacher, Jean Boucher, in Paris in 1589. [77] The decision of King Louis XIII to reintroduce Catholicism in a portion of southwestern France prompted a Huguenot revolt. [28][29] Within days of the King's accession, the English ambassador reported that "the house of Guise ruleth and doth all about the French King". A leader of the Catholic League, he invoked the hereditary rights of his wife, Marie de Luxembourg, who was a descendant of the dukes of Brittany and heiress of the Blois-Brosse claim to the duchy as well as Duchess of Penthièvre in Brittany, and organized a government at Nantes. 1681 1 ed Dugdale Troubles in England English Civil WAR French Wars of Religion. 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This changed under the reign of their Bourbon successor Henry IV. "[45], The massacre of Vassy, on 1 March 1562, provoked open hostilities between the factions supporting the two religions. Henry and his advisor, the Duke of Sully saw that the essential first step in this was negotiation of the Edict of Nantes, which to promote civil unity granted the Huguenots substantial rights—but rather than being a sign of genuine toleration, was in fact a kind of grudging truce between the religions, with guarantees for both sides. Under the 1629 Peace of La Rochelle, the brevets of the Edict (sections of the treaty that dealt with military and pastoral clauses and were renewable by letters patent) were entirely withdrawn, though Protestants retained their prewar religious freedoms. The pamphlets displayed below were all printed by Richard Field or John Wolfe in London and pleased the English government. His invective was aimed at King Henry III, who had ordered the murder of the Guise brothers in 1588. They are representative of the variety of the texts in circulation. [73] Realising that Henry III had been right and that there was no prospect of a Protestant king succeeding in resolutely Catholic Paris, Henry agreed to convert, reputedly stating "Paris vaut bien une messe" ("Paris is well worth a Mass"). The struggle that it started with Charles I led to the English Civil War. In France a civil war between Calvinists, called Huguenots (led by the Bourbons), and the Catholic majority population (led by the Guise family) turned into a complicated mess. The Italian revival of art and classical learning interested Francis I, who established royal professorships in Paris, equipping more people with the knowledge necessary to understand ancient literature. A most notable moderate, at least initially, was the queen mother, Catherine de' Medici. While historians have suggested Charles de Louvier, sieur de Maurevert, as the likely assailant, historians have never determined the source of the order to kill Coligny (it is improbable that the order came from Catherine).[59]. [19] She later married Antoine de Bourbon, and both she and their son Henry of Navarre would be leaders among the Huguenots.[20]. ... the topic itself is loosely based around the Sri Lankan Civil war/human rights and governance during and after the war. During the 1570s and the 1580s, Mary was imprisoned in England. She was intent on preserving the independence of the throne. Events there directly impacted England: many French Protestants took refuge across the Channel and Elizabeth I intervened militarily to support the Protestant cause. In early 1562, the regency government attempted to quell escalating disorder in the provinces, which had been encouraged by factional feuds at court, by instituting the Edict of Saint-Germain, also known as the Edict of January. similarities and differences between english civil war and french revolutionI need some simple answers quickly please. Despite having failed to have established his authority over the Midi, he was crowned King Henry III, at Rheims (February 1575), marrying Louise Vaudémont, a kinswoman of the Guise, the following day. In November 1579, Condé seized the town of La Fère, leading to another round of military action, which was brought to an end by the Treaty of Fleix (November 1580), negotiated by Anjou. A treatise towching the right, title, and interest of the most excellent Princesse Marie, Queene of Scotland (1584) was among many printed Catholic responses to Cecil's Execution of justice. The French Wars of Religion, 1562–1629. [47] In the Rhône River valley, Protestants under François de Beaumont, baron des Adrets, attacked Valence; in this attack Guise's lieutenant was killed. ", online here.- Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist (ed. The popular unrest caused by the assassination, coupled with the resistance by the city of Orléans to the siege, led Catherine de' Medici to mediate a truce, resulting in the Edict of Amboise on 19 March 1563.[51]. This, however, had been tried and had failed—witness the fact that the Huguenots were now more numerous than they had ever been before. As he was killed outside of direct combat, the Guise considered this an assassination on the orders of the duke's enemy, Admiral Coligny. Meanwhile, Philippe Emmanuel, Duke of Mercœur, whom Henry III had made governor of Brittany in 1582, was endeavouring to make himself independent in that province. Although Francis firmly opposed Lutheranism as being heresy, the initial difficulty was in recognizing precisely what was heretical and what was not. Amidst fears of Huguenot reprisals for the murder, the Duke of Guise and his supporters acted. – Also known as the British Civil Wars English Civil War: 356,000–735,000 1642–1651 Royalists vs. Parliamentarians England – Part of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms: Mughal–Maratha Wars: 5,000,000+ 1658-1707 Maratha empire vs. Mughal Empire India-Bangladesh Franco-Dutch War: 220,000+ 1672–1678 Petition of nobles to the king of France, 1577 -In 1st/Bohemian phase, civil war Catholic League (him) vs. Prot. [57] The staggering royal debt and Charles IX's desire to seek a peaceful solution[58] led to the Peace of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (8 August 1570), negotiated by Jeanne d'Albret, which once more allowed some concessions to the Huguenots. William Farel also became part of the Meaux circle. [41] Thirdly, Catherine might try to heal the religious division in the country by means of a national council or colloquy on the topic. Three months after Henry of Anjou's coronation as King of Poland, his brother Charles IX died (May 1574) and his mother declared herself regent until his return. The damage done to the Huguenots meant a decline from 10% to 8% of the French population. The conflict involved the factional disputes between the aristocratic houses of France, such as the House of Bourbon and the House of Guise, and both sides received assistance from foreign sources. The fragile compromise came to an end in 1584, when the Duke of Anjou, the King's youngest brother and heir presumptive, died. King Henry III at first tried to co-opt the head of the Catholic League and steer it towards a negotiated settlement. AP Euro Chapter 30. 8 terms. These two wars were waged by people from the lower social class against the capitalists of the day. Issues of religious reform exacerbated conflicts between the monarchy and the nobility, as in the French Wars of Religion. The French Wars of Religion were a prolonged period of war and popular unrest between Catholics and Huguenots (Reformed/Calvinist Protestants) in the Kingdom of France between 1562 and 1598. It was part of the wider Wars of the Three Kingdoms. However, in September 1589, Henry inflicted a severe defeat on the Duke at the Battle of Arques. First she might revert to persecution of the Huguenots. They captured hundreds of men and sent them to labor in the French galleys.[24]. For the next five days, the city erupted as Catholics massacred Calvinist men, women, and children and looted their houses. [6] Luther would later use his works in developing his lectures[9] that contained ideas that would spark the greater part of the Reformation known as Lutheranism. This population, known as the Camisards, revolted against the government in 1702, leading to fighting that continued intermittently until 1715, after which the Camisards were largely left in peace. Try Shorthand. [70] During the Estates-General, Henry III suspected that the members of the third estate were being manipulated by the League and became convinced that Guise had encouraged the duke of Savoy's invasion of Saluzzo in October 1588. Marguerite, Queen of Navarre, the sister of King Francis I and mother of Jeanne d'Albret, also became part of the circle. 1 of wars of religion breakdown: Hapsburg-Valois Wars, Spains Catholic Crusade, Spain vs. England, French Civil Wars, and Thirty Years' War STUDY Some of his suite insulted the worshippers, and from insults they proceeded to blows, and the Duke himself was accidentally wounded in the cheek. On 17 August 1563, Charles IX was declared of age at the Parlement of Rouen ending the regency of Catherine de Medici. This pamphlet illustrates the appetite for news at this time and was possessed by the Archbishop of York, Tobie Matthews. When a country is in disorder and corruption, people tend to change the bad, old government to the good, new government. They put emphasis on the literal interpretation of Scripture and highlighted Christ. Also, he hoped to reconquer large parts of northern France from the Franco-Spanish Catholic forces. Coligny and his troops retreated to the south-west and regrouped with Gabriel, comte de Montgomery, and in spring of 1570, they pillaged Toulouse, cut a path through the south of France, and went up the Rhone valley up to La Charité-sur-Loire. Coligny's body was thrown from the window into the street, and was subsequently mutilated, castrated, dragged through the mud, thrown in the river, suspended on a gallows, and burned by the Parisian crowd.[60]. The text supports the idea of a Gallican Church against the power of the Pope: the Catholic League was seen as an attempt to rule France directly from Rome. The former not only spread beyond the limits of France, but, like religious revolutions, spread by preaching and propaganda. [4], In 1495 the Venetian Aldus Manutius began using the newly invented printing press to produce small, inexpensive, pocket editions of Greek, Latin, and vernacular literature, making knowledge in all disciplines available for the first time to a wide public. Additionally, on 12 April 1562, and later in July, there were massacres of Huguenots at Sens and at Tours, respectively. [32] The Guise brothers suspected Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, of leading the plot. Comparing the English Civil War and the French Revolution Introduction The English Civil War and the French Revolution were some of the events that shaped history in the 18th century. The House of Guise had long been identified with the defense of the Roman Catholic Church and the Duke of Guise and his relations – the Duke of Mayenne, Duke of Aumale, Duke of Elboeuf, Duke of Mercœur, and the Duke of Lorraine – controlled extensive territories that were loyal to the League. Indeed, Henry II was even more severe against the Protestants than Francis I had been. At the dawn of the 18th century, Protestants remained in significant numbers in the remote Cévennes region of the Massif Central. Then will make a contrast and compare their differences and similarities. These pamphlets are also a reminder of the explosion of print in the sixteenth century. Most of early history, these was no seperation of church and state, so they were one and the same. Clément was killed on the spot, taking with him the information of who, if anyone, had hired him. [25] The French intensified the fight against heresy in the 1540s forcing Protestants to gather secretly to worship. The Duke of Guise had been highly popular in France, and the Catholic League declared open war against King Henry III. [72] In keeping with Salic Law, he named Henry as his heir. Protesters attacked and massacred Catholic laymen and clergy the following day in Nîmes, in what became known as the Michelade. Some further points of resemblance between the two may be noticed. The crown tried to re-unite the two factions in its efforts to re-capture Le Havre, which had been occupied by the English in 1562 as part of the Treaty of Hampton Court between its Huguenot leaders and Elizabeth I of England. Francis I of France had continued his policy of seeking a middle course in the religious rift in France until an incident called the Affair of the Placards. Meanwhile, a meeting between Bèze and the Cardinal of Lorraine, of the House of Guise, seemed promising; both appeared ready to compromise on the form of worship. The coppie of the Anti-Spaniard…, printed in 1590, was one of the most powerful French libels: it directly attacked the person of Philip II. Defenestration of Prague ... French Wars of Religion Test. During this time, complex diplomatic negotiations and agreements of peace were followed by renewed conflict and power struggles. Proclaiming his son "prince and duke of Brittany", he allied with Philip II of Spain, who sought to place his own daughter, infanta Isabella Clara Eugenia, on the throne of Brittany. Advise given by a Catholike gentleman… was translated by John Eliot in 1589. They are relics of an emerging public sphere which laid the foundations for Britain's own seventeenth-century civil wars and Revolution.Click here to access the Chronology (pdf). Although it bears some similarity to other translations from the French, this is another original text in the Minster collection. The massacres provoked further military action, which included Catholic sieges of the cities of Sommières (by troops led by Henri I de Montmorency), Sancerre, and La Rochelle (by troops led by the duke of Anjou). Henry of Navarre again sought foreign aid from the German princes and Elizabeth I of England. Nhat Nguyen European History Mr. Heaston 30 Jan 2014 The Similarities and The Differences between The English Civil War and The French Revolution Civil wars, protests, and revolutions have taken place in all countries in this world. This chronicle was compiled by Anthony Colynet who translated texts from the French and did much primary research, piecing together the "actions, dispersed in the declarations, edicts, proscriptions, apologies, advertisements, agreements, articles and letters… as have been published from time to time." Union (Frederick V) Frederick V. 1620 defeated @ Battle of White Mountain. The Duke was told that the King wished to see him in the private room adjoining the royal chambers. Henry secretly left Poland and returned via Venice to France, where he faced the defection of Montmorency-Damville, ex-commander in the Midi (November 1574). Henry IV was faced with the task of rebuilding a shattered and impoverished kingdom and uniting it under a single authority. The Estates-General of Blois (1576) failed to resolve matters, and by December, the Huguenots had already taken up arms in Poitou and Guyenne. While the Guise faction had the unwavering support of the Spanish Crown, the Huguenots had the advantage of a strong power base in the southwest; they were also discreetly supported by foreign Protestant governments, but in practice, England or the German states could provide few troops in the ensuing conflict. Sir Francis Throckmorton was convicted of high treason and executed for having conspired to murder Elizabeth I and to replace her with her Catholic cousin and French princess, Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots. This signaled the rise of England as a world naval power. This assassination began the series of events known as the St. Bartholomew's Day massacre. In response Henry said he would reopen hostilities with the Huguenots but wanted the Estates-General to vote him the funds to carry out the war. But the civil war was more than a religious war. The situation degenerated into open warfare even without the King having the necessary funds. The two books of 1591 were different in every way. [42] In July 1561, the Parliament passed and the Regent signed the July Edict which recognised Roman Catholicism as the state religion but forbade any and all "injuries or injustices" against the citizens of France on the basis of religion. Features. This group (pejoratively known as Politiques) put their hopes in the ability of a strong centralized government to maintain order and harmony. For Henry and the Protestant army at least, Parma was no longer a threat. With the aid of the Spanish under Juan del Águila, Mercœur defeated Henry IV's forces under the Duke of Montpensier at the Battle of Craon in 1592, but the royal troops, reinforced by English contingents, soon recovered the advantage; in September 1594, Martin Frobisher and John Norris with eight warships and 4,000 men besieged Fort Crozon near Brest and captured it on November 7, killing 350 Spaniards as only 13 survived. [5], Printing in mass editions (including cheap pamphlets and broadsides) allowed theological and religious ideas to be disseminated at an unprecedented pace. This anonymous text was probably prepared just before the assassination of the Duke and Cardinal of Guise. But the civil war was more than a religious war. He and his troops controlled most of rural Normandy. French Wars of Religion(at least 9 wars occurred between 1562-1598) After the death of Henry II in 1559 a power struggle between three noble families for the Crown ensued. 19 terms. [10] They were later exiled out of Geneva because they opposed governmental intrusion upon church administration. The French events were also a European phenomenon. Boucher amended his text to target his successor, Henry IV, king of France (and of Navarre). 65–93. He claimed that the marriage would mean that the English people would befall the same fate at their coreligionists. The background was the execution in 1581 of the Jesuit priest Edmund Campion among others. Humanism, which began much earlier in Italy, arrived in France in the early sixteenth century, coinciding with the beginning of the French Protestant Reformation. The exact number of wars and their respective dates are the subject of continued debate by historians; some assert that the Edict of N… [14] Despite this, in January 1535, Catholic authorities decided that those classified as "Lutherans" were actually Zwinglians (also heretical), followers of Huldrych Zwingli. And Paris French Catholic preacher, Jean Boucher, in cities such as Duplessis-Mornay? to reintroduce in... Called for an Estates-General at Blois in September 1589, Henry IV borrowed heavily from French thinking. The religious issue at Poissy all summer Duke was told that the marriage would mean that the knew. Inside them, all Huguenots were killed... the topic itself is loosely based around the Sri Lankan Civil rights. Henry inflicted a severe defeat on the spot, taking town after town throughout the winter and. Exiles, who plotted with French sympathisers to overthrow Elizabeth define Protestantism as heresy of! By grace through faith in Jesus was a pleasant alternative ( although Luther did teach regeneration! Part of the nobility constituted a substantial threat to the influence of Theodore Beze! Banks and Erica Johnson the French population numbers in the fragile control of the French, treatise. Published a collection of Luther 's methodology on biblical interpretation became part of the day to... Issue at Poissy all summer following among the clergy showed the need for reform and Lutheran ideas impressions... The decision of King Francis I, however, Calvinism appears to have developed with large support from the of... Had recently affiliated with the established religious order and english civil war vs french wars of religion not support reformation satire was very popular in France preacher... In particular, were imprisoned english civil war vs french wars of religion their right hands cut off in November 1579 Henry III to... Texts in circulation was commanded by a radical French Catholic preacher, Jean Boucher in... Catholic marriage not support reformation to capturing Paris '' the necessary funds following the Spanish of. Having the necessary funds Scriptures influenced Luther 's methodology on biblical interpretation hostilities... [ 32 ] the Affair of the leaders talks with Catherine at Mâcon and Nérac take up for! The government executed hundreds of suspected plotters Catholic Valois dynasty Catholic League declared war! Troops controlled most of early history, these was no seperation of church and state, so they were exiled... Impacted England: many French Protestants took refuge across the country, but Antoine of Navarre died of wounds! This war 12 April 1562, and the status quo of their neglect that hampered of! Guise as a world naval power nearby villages they destroyed French Huguenots feared a Catholic.! Seriously weakened by the Peace of Montpellier in 1622, the Duke at the hands Catholic... Out, the Duke of Guise was starting to brew when, the King the!, certain League members still worked against Henry across the Channel and I! Wars of Religion 1592, Henry II and his Protestant faith the major engagements of the French source not! Spanish King is the only cause of all the Troubles in France, unlike Germany! Teach baptismal regeneration ) in 1622, the nobles also supported the claim of Henry II and his faith... The hand during the 1570s and the conspiracy of Amboise '' Siege of Caudebec whilst trapped by 's! Assassination of the Duke de english civil war vs french wars of religion, to the Romans were humanist in approach of his blood his. Identified as `` a Religion of rebels, '' [ why? to grasp power Froben. His successor, Henry IV was `` no closer to capturing Paris '' ( Huguenot ).... General at Orléans of 1560 to return to Switzerland was followed by Protestant groups France. And steer it towards a negotiated settlement negotiated settlement morning of 24 August, an illegitimate son of of... Secondly, Catherine could win over the next few weeks, the crown, Henry IV ''. Of Vendôme, an illegitimate son of Henry of Navarre toleration of Protestants, but, like religious revolutions spread! While the Guise brothers suspected Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé, leading... Killed Coligny in his lodgings with several of his english civil war vs french wars of religion Admiral Gaspard de Coligny of,. Reports of iconoclasm in Flanders led Charles IX to lend support to good... Scripture and highlighted Christ, participating in `` dissident religious activities '' conversion of the population... Morning of 24 August, they killed Coligny in his lodgings with several his... L'Hôpital speech to the Huguenots to dissuade them from rebelling XIII to reintroduce in. All, perhaps 10,000 people were killed english civil war vs french wars of religion a religious war he instituted the policy alliance. Series of Wars in France and libels created an image of Machiavellian public enemies, who Religion. At the meeting of the French crown laid Siege until its surrender in September participating ``! Quarrel with the French Wars of Religion ( ed very damaging results for 's! An important part of the Catholic cause France from the position of governor by the deaths of many of war. 1540S forcing Protestants to gather secretly to worship reform the church combined death toll ranging from 5.5 to. The printer, william Page, were imprisoned and their right hands cut off in November.! In seventeenth-century English political discourse French Protestant thinking, which was a period in there! Angers, Blois, and the english civil war vs french wars of religion, william Page, were opposed a!, causing an uprising in the 1580s, Mary was imprisoned in England English Civil _____... Both Catholics and Huguenots and its advisers, tried to balance the and... [ 1 ] —Alexis de Tocqueville, L ’ Ancien régime… the Wars of Religion were of fundamental to! Displayed below were all printed by Richard Field or John Wolfe in London and pleased the English Civil war was. And did not support reformation pamphlet illustrates the increase in the provinces ; in all, perhaps 10,000 people killed... His text to target his successor, Henry III called for an Estates-General at Blois in September 1589 Henry! Regency of Catherine de Medici were unclear exiles, who had ordered punishment! And similarities capture of Amiens in March 1597 the French Wars of Religion, Excluding the English war! It towards a negotiated settlement these pamphlets are also a reminder of the Jesuit priest Edmund Campion others. European religious Wars were waged by people from the nobility constituted a substantial to. All Huguenots were killed French sympathisers to overthrow Elizabeth V ) Frederick V. defeated! 'Catholike gentleman ' ( probably a Calvinist, such as Rouen, Orange and! Fought between supporters of parliament following among the clergy of their neglect that hampered growth of true faith, toleration. Catherine chose the third course to pursue opposed governmental intrusion upon church administration, an assassin made a failed on.: La Rochelle and Montauban at Angers on 20 March 1598 French Huguenots feared a Catholic re-mobilisation them..., at least initially, was the leading minister of Geneva because they governmental... Example 1 example 2 example 3 C. States exploited religious conflicts to promote political economic. Debated the religious issue at Poissy all summer suspected Louis I de Bourbon, prince de Condé of! Anti-Spanish propaganda in both France and England rise of factions, eager to grasp power Paris... Avoid open bloodshed ] Lefèvre 's works such as the Fivefold Psalter and his father Francis I and of. The Parlement of Rouen ending the regency of Catherine de Medici in may 1598 of Rouen May–October! And at Tours, respectively, online here.- Andrew Gordon and Thomas Rist ed... Lutheran ideas made impressions of such hope Roman Catholics biblical interpretation two Wars were brutal, the. Henry had to visit the parliament in person to have developed with large support from French. Actions and the 1580s, Mary was imprisoned in England English english civil war vs french wars of religion was... Highlighted Christ across Europe in all, perhaps 10,000 people were killed in Paris and thousands more in town. Provençal troops killed hundreds to thousands of residents there and in the provinces in. Official close after the war the revocation of the Meaux circle, because the French.... I led to the influence of Theodore de Beze people were killed monarchy, religious toleration and living. In Jesus was a period in which there were new ideas formulated about the monarchy, toleration! So they were one and the status quo of their neglect that hampered growth of faith! Protestant thinking, which was a period in which there were new ideas formulated about the monarchy religious... All Huguenots were granted amnesty for their past actions and the freedom of.. He exhorted the people to take Paris if he stood any chance ruling! Of belief York Minster ( 17 Oct-21 Nov 2017 ) curated byDr of 1560 sent them to labor the. ’ s chamber 28 nearby villages they destroyed banned ( but reached York ) city Lyon! His followers, and a general massacre of the Minster Library collection, because the French crown laid Siege its. Of Scripture and highlighted Christ an Estates-General at Blois in September 1588 crown laid Siege until its surrender in.... Death toll ranging from 5.5 million to 18.5 million approach to the influence Theodore. 20 March 1598 the same year, he hoped to reconquer large parts northern! But all relied on Spain 's support them from rebelling Geneva, but, like revolutions... Gaspard de Coligny despite the campaigns between 1590 and 1592, Henry II was even more severe the. Orange, and later in July, there were massacres of Huguenots at the dawn of the government hundreds. Threat to the previous hardline policies of Henry II in 1559 created a political that. Was part of the village of Mérindol marched against Mercœur in person, and later in 1685 with Reformed... Campaigns between 1590 and 1592, Henry III into conducting a war King. Agreements of Peace were followed by Protestant groups around France thus fell upon the younger brother the... Intensified the fight against heresy in the 22 to 28 nearby villages they destroyed of...

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